McLaren Health Care Village, Garden of Healing and Renewal. Image courtesy of Professional Engineering Associates
This resource list has been developed from the ASLA 2011 presentation, "Water in the Designed Landscape: Benefits, Precautions and Recommendations," by Jack Carman, Clare Cooper Marcus, and Naomi Sachs (October 30, 2011).
We hope to make the presentation, or parts of it, available on this website page, so please check back.
General references from presentation:
Kaplan, Rachel. "Down by the Riverside: Informational factors in Waterscape Preference." (Sorry, more citation information is not available).
Hertzog, Thomas R.; "Cognitive Analysis of Preference for Waterscapes." Dept. of Psychology, Grand Valley State College, Allendale, Michigan, 49401; pp. 47 - 63.
Marquis, A.L. (2009). "Healing waters." National Parks, 83(1), 42-45.
Schiff, L., & Kline, H. (2001). "Water’s Wonders." Psychology Today, 34, 5.
White, Matthew, Amanda Smith, Kelly Humphries, Sabine Pahl, Deborah
Snelling (2010). "Blue Space: The importance of water for preference, affect and restorativeness ratings of natural and built scenes." Journal of Environmental Psychology, 30, pp. 482 - 493.
References and resources from Naomi Sachs's presentation, "Outdoor Water Features in the Healthcare Setting: Risks, Practices, and Recommendations."
One of the best resources about (indoor and outdoor) ornamental water features, “Guidelines for Control of Legionella in Ornamental Water Features,” can be found and downloaded at www.legionellae.org/guidelines/guidelines.htm.
Resources about water play/park features, as well as general public water features, will be added soon after the conference , so please check back.
The following resources pertain primarily to decorative water features/fountains in the healthcare setting. They - especially the guidelines - are geared primarily to indoor features, but would apply to outdoor as well.
These pertain mostly to indoor decorative water features, but all landscape architects and designers who work in the healthcare setting should be aware of them:
CDC and Healthcare Infections Control Practices Advisory Practices Committee’s “Guidelines for Environmental Infection Control in Health Care Facilities,” 2003.
AIA Guidelines and FGI Guidelines for Design and Construction of Health Care Facilities (2010) are very similar.
ASHRAE Guideline 12-2000
“Minimizing the Risk of Legionellosis Associated with Building Water Systems” (2000). See especially page 7, "Architectural Fountains and Waterwall Systems."
JCAHO/ASHE joint guidelines, “Regulatory Advisory Waterborne Pathogens – Compliance with JCAHO Requirements”
OSHA Legionella Manual
Chambers, Nancy (2003). "Horticultural Therapy and Infection Control in the Healthcare Environment." Journal of Therapeutic Horticulture, Volume XIV, pp. 56-61.
In this article, Chambers, a horticultural therapist examines the likeliness of hospital patients contracting a disease from plants, soil, and other elements of nature, and discusses whether or not that probability outweighs the positive healing effects that a little exposure to nature can do for a patient.
Freije, M. (August 23, 2001). "Decorative fountains in hospitals." Legionella E-news. www.hcinfo.com/legionella_news_010823.htm (downloaded 4/9/07). Incorrect link
Gerlach-Spriggs, Nancy J. "Infection Control and Therapeutic Gardens: A Survey of Policies and Practice." Abstract in Candice Shoemaker (Ed), Interaction by Design, p. 305.
Hlady, W., Mullen, R., Mintz, D., Shellton, B., Hopkins, R. & Daikos, G. (1993). "Outbreak of Legionnaires’ disease linked to decorative fountain by molecular epidemiology." American Journal of Epidemiology, 138, 555-562.
Institute of Medicine (2001). Crossing the quality chasm: A new health system for the 21st century. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press.
Joseph, Anjali (2006). “The impact of the environment on infections in healthcare facilities.” Concord, CA: The Center for Health Design.
Klevins, R. M., Edwards, J. R., Richards, C. L. Horan, T. C., Gaynes, R. P., Pollack, D. A., et al. (2007). "Estimating health care-associated infections and deaths in US hospitals." Public Health Reports, Vol. 122, No. 2, pp. 160-166.
Rogers, Juliet L., PhD (2006). "The Debate over Decorative Fountains in Healthcare Environments: How Great is the Infection Control Risk?" Research Design Connections, Winter 1-3.
Note: At the time of publication of Rogers' article, only one outbreak of Legionnaire's disease had been reported (see Hlady, 1993). Since that time, several more cases have been reported, including some in hospitals. To date, only one case of an outdoor decorative fountain has been reported (not in a hospital).
Schlech, W. (1990). "Legionella and fountains." The Lancet, 336, 576.
Sehulster, L., & Chinn, R. (2003). "Guidelines for environmental infection control in health-care facilities." Center for Disease Control, June, 52 (RR10), 1-42.
Shepley, Mardelle McCuskey and Peni Wilson (1999). "Designing for Persons with AIDS: A Post-Occupancy Study at the Bailey-Boushay House." Journal of Architectural and Planning Research, Vol. 16, No. 1, Spring, pp. 17-32.
Ulrich, Roger, Zimring, Craig., Zhu, X., DuBose, J., Seo, H., Choi, Y., Quan, X., and Joseph, A. (2008). “A Review of the Research Literature on Evidence-Based Healthcare Design (Part II).” HERD Journal. Vol. 1, No. 3, Spring, pp. 61-126.
Note: Ulrich et. al. base some of their findings on Rogers' 2006 article - see above. At the time of publication of Rogers' article, only one outbreak of Legionnaire's disease had been reported (see Hlady, 1993). Since that time, several more cases have been reported, including some in hospitals. To date, only one case of an outdoor decorative fountain has been reported (not in a hospital).
If you have comments on this information or suggestions for additional resources, please contact us.