Resources/References

Abott, Pauline S., Nancy Carman, Jack Carman, and Bob Scarfo (2009). Re-Creating Neighborhoods for Successful Aging. Baltimore, MD: Health Professions Press.
Click HERE to read a review our review of the book on the TLN Blog.

Adams, Jane Meredith (2001). "From Hurt to Healing." Health, p. 120 (article about Topher Delaney).

Adler, Jane (2002). "Environment May Play Part in Healing Elderly." Chicago Tribune. November 17.

Aiken, Kelly, Caru Bowns, Mark Fellinger, and Mark Francis. Healing Environments: A Collection of Case Studies. University of California, Davis: Center for Design Research, 1995.

Alexander, Christopher, Sara Ishikawa, and Murray Silverstein (1977).
A Pattern Language.
New York: Oxford University Press.

Ali, Saleem H. (2007). Peace Parks: Conservation and Conflict Resolution. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Alvarez, Lizette (2004). "Where the Healing Touch Starts with Hospital Design." The New York Times. September 7.

Appleton, Jay (1996). The Experience of Landscape. Chichester, New York: Wiley & Sons.

Aronson, Deb (2003). "How Nature Heals Us." Science & Spirit, July/August.

Ashmun, Barbara Blossom (2000). Garden Retreats: Creating an Outdoor Sanctuary. San Francisco: Chronicle Books.

Augustin, Sally and Jean Marie Cackowski (2009). “When Designing Public Places, Including Teenagers Is (duh!) a Good Idea.” Landscape Architecture, Vol. 99, No. 1, pp. 22-25.
Synopsis: The article examines why teenagers are not considered when outdoor public places are being designed, and what the benefits could be of including them into this process.
http://archives.asla.org/lamag/lam09/january/research.html
Keywords: Teenagers, Outdoor Public Spaces, Design Features.

Augustin, Sally and Jean Marie Cackowski (2009). “On the Playground, Obstacles Jump-Start Activity.” Landscape Architecture, Vol. 99, No. 1, pp. 25-26.
Synopsis: Obstacles on a playground stimulate activity in young children, ages 3-5.
http://archives.asla.org/lamag/lam09/january/research.html

Augustin, Sally and Jean Marie Cackowski (2009). “Wondering About Wander Gardens.” Landscape Architecture, Vol. 99, No. 1, pp. 27-29.
Synopsis: Wander gardens stimulate the sense and enhance the well-being of dementia patients.
http://archives.asla.org/lamag/lam09/january/research.html

Barnes, Marni and Clare Cooper Marcus, Eds. (1999). Healing Gardens: Therapeutic Benefits and Design Recommendations. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1999. Received the 2000 EDRA/Places "Place Research" Award; see Bressi, Todd.

Barnes, Marni (1996). "The Process of Emotional Restoration in Outdoor Settings." In C. Wagner (Ed.) Proceedings of the 1996 Annual Meeting of the American Society of Landscape Architects.

Buzzell, Linda and Craig Chalquist (2009). Ecotherapy: Healing with Nature in Mind. Sierra Club/Counterpoint. Visit the website for more information: www.ecotherapyheals.com, or order the book directly from Amazon.com.

Cooper Marcus, Clare and Marni Barnes (1995). Gardens in Healthcare Facilities: Uses, Therapeutic Benefits, and Design Recommendations. Martinez, CA: The Center for Health Design.

Barnes, Marni (1994). "A Study of the Process of Emotional Healing in Outdoor Spaces and the Concomitant Landscape Design Implications." Master of Landscape Architecture Thesis, University of California, Berkeley.

Barnhart, S., N. H. Perkins, and J. FitzSimons (1998). "Behavioural and Setting Preferences at a Psychiatric Hospital." Landscape and Urban Planning, Vol. 42, Nos. 2-4, pp. 147-157.

Barrett, Marilyn (1992). Creating Eden: The Garden as a Healing Space. San Francisco: HarperCollins.

Beckwith, Margarette E. and Susan D. Gilster (1997). "The Paradise Garden: A Model Garden Design for Those with Alzheimer's Disease." Published simultaneously "Activities, Adaptation & Aging" and "Horticultural Therapy and the Older Adult Population" Suzanne E. Wills (Ed.) Binghamton, NY: The Haworth Press, Inc., Vol 22. No. 1/2, pp. 3-16.

Beckwith, Margarette E. and Susan D. Gilster (1997). "The Paradise Garden: A Model for Designing for Those with Dementia and Alzheimer's Disease." Journal of Therapeutic Horticulture, Vol VIII, pp. 45-52.

Beckwith, Margarette E. (1999). "Case Study of the Alois Alzheimer Center Courtyard Garden." in Chapter 9, "Alzheimer's Treatment Gardens" Clare Cooper Marcus and Marni Barnes (Eds.) Healing Gardens, New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Bedard, Mary (2000). Healthy Landscapes: Guidelines for Therapeutic City Form. Unpublished Master's Thesis, University of California, Davis.

Bite, I. and M. J. Lovering (1984). "Design Open Doors for the Elderly." Landscape Architecture, November/December, pp. 79-81.

Bogers, R.J. (2005). Farming for Health. (Proceedings of the Frontis Workshop on Farming for Health, Wageningen, The Netherlands 16-19 March 2005). For more information, visit the Farming for Health website.

Bowers, Deborah Ann (2003). "Incorporating Restorative Experiential Qualities and Key Landscape Attributes to Enhance the Restorative Experience in Healing Gardens Within Health Care Settings." Thesis for Master of Science in Landscape Architecture at Washington State University, Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture.
Click HERE to view a PDF of the thesis.

Bowns, Caru & Brian Collett (1996). A Landscape Vocabulary of Healing Environments. University of California, Davis: Department of Environmental Design.

Boyer, M. Christine (1994). The City of Collective Memory. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Brawley, Elizabeth (2005). Design Innovations for Aging and Alzheimer's. David Kamp, contributor. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Brechin, Gray (1990). "Grace Merchant and the Global Garden," in Francis, Mark and Randolph Hester (Eds.). The Meaning of Gardens. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, pp. 226-229.

Bressi, Todd (2001). "Place Research: Healing Gardens." Places, Vol. 14, No. 1, Winter, pp. 26-29 (2000 EDRA/Places Place Research Award).

Browning, Dominique (2005). A "barrier free" garden designed by Deborah Nevins for a Chicago, Illinios family, in The New Garden Paradise: Great Private Gardens of the World. New York, London: W.W. Norton & Company, pp. 144-157. "Their child's mobility was limited by his reliance on a wheelchair or walker, so they wanted a garden that the whole family could enjoy on an equal footing."

Bruce, H. (1999). Garden for the Senses: Garden as Therapy. Altamonte Springs, FL: Winner Enterprises.

Brunton, Laurie and Erin Fournier (1999). Sanctuary: Gardening for the Soul. New York, NY: Michael Friedman Publishing Group, Inc.

Burnett, J.D. (1997). "Therapeutic Effects of Landscape Architecture" in Marberry, Sara. O. (Ed.). Healthcare Design. New York: John Wiley & Sons, pp. 255-274.

Burnett, James (2003). "Healing Gardens?" Healthcare Design, May, pp. 21-23 ("The healing garden is not just another pretty picture: design for the healthcare environment requires more").

Burt, Virginia (1998). "Achieving Spiritual Balance within the Spatial Landscapes of a Healing Garden." Journal of Therapeutic Horticulture, Vol. IX, American Horticultural Therapy Association, pp.66-69

Burt, Virginia T. (2000). "The Comfort of Nature: Restorative Environments: Design for Human Health." Landscapes/Paysages, Vol. 2, No. 1, Winter/Hiver, p. 7.

Butterfield, D. W. (1982). "Outdoor Spaces Surrounding Group Homes for the Developmentally Disabled Adult." Master of Architecture Thesis, University of Illinois, Department of Landscape Architecture, Urbana, IL.

Cackowski, Jean Marie and Sally Augustin (2004). "The Research Connection." Landscape Architecture, Vol. 94, NO. 5, May, pp. 96-101. (One study focuses on gardens for dementia care.)

Calkins, Meg (1988). Design for Dementia: Planning Environments for the Elderly and Confused. Owings Mills, MD: William & Wilkins.

Campbell, Sheila et al. (1991). Health, Disease and Healing in Medieval Culture. New York: St. Martin's.

Campbell, Lindsay and Anne Wiesen (2009). Restorative Commons: Creating Health and Well-Being through Urban Landscapes. Newtown Square, Pennsylvania: USDA Forest Service.
Order or download a copy of the book from the USDA Forest Service website.
Visit the Restorative Commons website.
Read our review of the book on the TLN Blog.

Carman, Jack (1998). "Exploring Nature Within the Grounds of a Senior Residence: Taking Resident Activities Outside." Assisted Living Success Magazine, May.

Carman, Jack (1999). "The Healing Power of Gardens." The Directors and Officers Forum, Spring.

Carman, Jack (1999). "The Outdoors Offers an Array of Therapeutic Benefits." Parent Care Advisor, August.

Carman, Jack (2000). "Nature by Design: Well planned gardens confer a host of benefits to senior housing residents." Nursing Home Long Term Care Magazine, Design issue, March.

Carman, Jack (2000). "Summer Fun: Let creativity guide you in planning activities for the person with Alzheimer's" Advances Newsletter, The Alzheimer's Association, Summer.

Carman, Jack (2001). "Raised Planters for the Senior Gardener." Nursing Home Long Term Care Magazine, Design issue, March.

Carman, Jack (2006). "Therapeutic Gardens," chapter in Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Older Adults: A Guide to Holistic Approaches to Healthy Aging. Eds. Elizabeth R. Mackenzie and Birgit Rakel, MD. Visit the Springer Publishing Company website to order the book and read a summary.

Carpman, Janet, Myron Grant, and Deborah Simmons (1993). Design That Cares: Planning Health Facilities for Patients and Visitors. Chicago: American Hospital Association.

Carr, Stephen, Mark Francis, Leanne Rivlin, and Andrew Stone (1992). Public Space. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.

Carstens, Diane Y. (1985). Site Planning and Design for the Elderly: Issues, Guidelines and Alternatives. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.

Carstens, Diane Y. (1990). "Housing and Outdoor Spaces for the Elderly." Chapter 5 in Clare Cooper Marcus and Mark Francis (Eds.) People Places, New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.

Cekic, Milosav (2003). "Why I Designed Cancer Parks." Landscape Architecture, Vol. 93, No. 5, May, pp. 62-68 & 98-100.

Chalfont, Garuth (2009). Design for Nature in Dementia Care. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers. Visit Dr. Chafont's website to order the book and read a review.

Chalfont, Garuth (2007). Design for Nature in Dementia Care. Philadelphia, PA: Jessica Kingsley Publishers. For more information, visit the publisher's website.

Chalfont, Garuth E. (2006). "Connection to Nature at the Building Edge: Towards a Therapeutic Architecture for Dementia Care Environments." Ph.D. Thesis, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, U.K.

Chalfont, G. E. (2005). "Creating Enabling Outdoor Environments for Residents." Nursing and Residential Care, Vol. 7, pp. 454-457.

Chalfont, G. E. (2005). "Reconnecting with nature." Journal of Dementia Care, Vol. 13, No. 2, p. 35.

Chalfont, G. E., & Rodiek, Susan (2005). "Building Edge: An ecological approach to research and design of environments for people with dementia." Alzheimer's Care Quarterly, Special Issue - Environmental Innovations in Care, Vol. 6, No. 4, pp. 341-348.

Chambers, Nancy (2003). "Horticultural Therapy and Infection Control in the Healthcare Environment." Journal of Therapeutic Horticulture, Volume XIV, pp. 56-61.
Synopsis: A horticultural therapist examines the likeliness of hospital patients contracting a disease from nature (eg: Plants, soil, and examines whether or not that probability outweighs the positive healing effects that a little exposure to nature can do for a patient.)

Chambers, Nancy K., Sonja Johansson, and Donna M. Walcavage (1996). "Classroom? Playground? Garden? Or Clinic?" Journal of Therapeutic Horticulture, Vol. VIII, pp. 83-87.

Chambers, Nancy K. and Sonja Johansson (2000). "A Children's PlayGarden at a Rehabilitation Hospital: A Successful Collaboration Produces a Successful Outcome." Proceedings from the Sixth Annual People-Plant Symposium, Glencoe, Illinois, July.

Chapman, Nancy, Teresia Hazen, and Eunice Noell-Waggoner (2005). "Encouraging Development and Use of Gardens by Caregivers of People with Dementia." Alzheimer's Care Quarterly, Vol. 6, No. 4. Also summarized by Research Design Connections in Landscape Architecture Magazine, August 2006, Vol. 96, No. 8, p. 73.

Cherry, Charles L. (1989). A Quiet Haven: Quakers, Moral Treatment, and Asylum Reform. Rutherford, NJ: Farleigh Dickenson University Press.

Collins, Belinda L. (1975). "Windows and People: A Literature Survey, Psychological Reaction to Environments with and Without Windows." National Bureau of Standards Science Series 70, Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce.

Connor, David (2006). "Reflection on Healing." Landscape Architecture, Vol. 96, No. 3, March, pp. 34-38 ("A landscape architect tells how he designed Tampa's cancer survivor's park.")

Cooper Marcus, Clare (2008). “Why Don't Landscape Architects Perform More POEs?Landscape Architecture, Letter to the Editor, Vol. 98, No. 3, March, p. 16-18.

Cooper Marcus, Clare (2008). "For Burn Patients, a Place to Heal." Landscape Architecture, Vol. 98, No. 4, March, p. 78-89.
Article about the Oregon Burn Center Garden at Legacy Emanuel Hospital in Portland, OR
Read a portion of the article online in the LAM Archives.

Cooper Marcus, Clare and Terry Hartig (2006). "Healing Gardens — Places for Nature in Health Care." The Lancet, special issue on Medicine and Creativity, Vol. 368, December.

Cooper Marcus, Clare (2006). "Life Support: Creating a Prison Hospice Garden." Frameworks (Alumni Magazine of College of Environmental Design, University of California, Berkeley), October.

Cooper Marcus, Clare (2006). Habitat et Nature: Du pragmatique au spirituel (papers published 1970–2000, translated into French by Irène de Charrière), Gollion, Switzerland: Infolio.

Cooper Marcus, Clare (2006). “Post Occupancy Evaluation” in Landscape Architectural Graphic Standards, (Ed.) Len Hopper, New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Cooper Marcus, Clare (2006). Forward to Susan Rodiek and Benyamin Schwarz (Eds.), The Role of the Outdoors in Residential Environments for Aging, New York: The Haworth Press, Inc.

Cooper Marcus, Clare (2006). “Healing Gardens in Hospitals” in The Architecture of Hospitals, (Ed.) Cor Wagenaar, Rotterdam, The Netherlands: NAi Publishers.

Cooper Marcus, Clare (2006). “Gardens as Treatment Milieu: Two Swedish Gardens Counteract the Effects of Stress.” Landscape Architecture, Vol. 96, No. 5, May.

Cooper Marcus, Clare (2005). “Help with Healing.” Green Places (inc. Landscape Design, UK), Issue 20, November.

Cooper Marcus, Clare (2005). “Good (Not So Clean) Fun.” Landscape Architecture, Vol. 95, no. 12, December (“Hamill Family Play Zoo encourages children to use their imaginations in adventure play”).

Cooper Marcus, Clare (2005). "No Ordinary Garden." Landscape Architecture, Vol. 95, No. 3, March, pp. 26-39 ("Alzheimer's and other patients find refuge in a Michigan dementia-care facility").

Cooper Marcus, Clare (2004). “Critical Opinion: The Royal Alexandra Children's Hospital,” Landscape Australia, February.

Cooper Marcus, Clare (2004). “The use and design of hospital courtyards.” HD: The Journal for Healthcare Design and Development. (UK), February.

Cooper Marcus, Clare (2003). “Shared Outdoor Spaces and Community Life.” Places: A Quarterly Journal of Environmental Design, Vol. 15, No. 2.

Cooper Marcus, Clare (2003). “Unexpected Company.” Landscape Architecture, June (“A redesigned urban square attempts to serve the needs of Oakland's homeless community and downtown office workers”).

Cooper Marcus, Clare (2003). "Healing Havens." Landscape Architecture, Vol. 93, No. 8, August, pp. 85-91 & 107-109 ("Two hospital gardens in Portland, Oregon win awards for therapeutic values").

Cooper Marcus, Clare (2003). “A Still Imperfect Union: Appraising the Redesign of San Francisco's famous square,” Landscape Architecture, December.

Cooper Marcus, Clare (2002). “Healing Gardens: What they are and how to create them.” Health Facilities Management magazine, May.

Cooper Marcus, Clare (2001). "Hospital Oasis." Landscape Architecture, Vol. 91, No. 10, pp. 36-99 ("Through a participatory design process, a failed Tommy Church garden in San Francisco is reconfigured as an exemplary therapeutic landscape").

Cooper Marcus, Clare (2001). “For Children Only." Landscape Architecture, December ("A London playground challenges preconceptions on which most American playgrounds are designed)”.

Cooper Marcus, Clare (2000). “Act of Healing." Landscape Architecture, November ("At the National AIDS Memorial Grove, restoring a landscape has helped comfort and restore those touched by AIDS)”.

Cooper Marcus, Clare and Marni Barnes, Eds. (1999). Healing Gardens: Therapeutic Benefits and Design Recommendations. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1999. Received the 2000 EDRA/Places "Place Research" Award; see Bressi, Todd.

Cooper Marcus, Clare and Carolyn Francis, Eds. (1999). People Places: Design Guidelines for Urban Open Space. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Revised 2nd Edition.

Cooper Marcus, Clare (1998). “Healing Gardens: The restorative potential of outdoor space in healthcare settings.” Interior Expressions, November.

Cooper Marcus, Clare and Carolyn Francis (1998). "Post-Occupancy Evaluation." Chapter 8 in People Places: Design Guidelines for Urban Open Space. 2nd ed., New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Cooper Marcus, Clare (1997). “Nature As Healer,” Nordic Journal of Architectural Research.

Cooper Marcus, Clare and Marni Barnes (1996). "Understanding and Applying the Therapeutic Benefits of Gardens." Journal of Healthcare Design VIII.

Cooper Marcus, Clare and Marni Barnes (1995). Gardens in Healthcare Facilities: Uses, Therapeutic Benefits, and Design Recommendations. Martinez, CA: The Center for Health Design.

Cooper Marcus, Clare (1995). House As A Mirror of Self: Exploring the Deeper Meaning of Home. Berkeley, CA: Conari Press.

Cooper Marcus, Clare and Wendy Sarkissian (1986). Housing As If People Mattered: Site Design Guidelines for Medium-Density Family Housing. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Coronado, Shawna Lee (2008). Gardening Nude: A Common Sense Guide to Improving Your Health and Lifestyle by Increasing Exposure to Nature, Cultivating a Green Mindset, and Building Strong Community. Warrenville, IL: The Casual Gardener Company.
See especially pp. 61-63. Click here to read a review of the book on the TLN Blog.

Crisp, Barbara (1998). Human Spaces: Life-Enhancing Designs for Healing, Working, and Living. Gloucester, MA: Rockport Publishers, Inc.

Dannenmaier, Molly (1995). "Healing Gardens." Landscape Architecture,, Vol. 85, No. 1, pp. 56-80.

Detweiler, Mark, Pamela Murphy, Laura Myers, and Kye Kim (2008). "Does a Wander Garden Influence Inappropriate Behaviors in Dementia Residents?" American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, 23 (1).
See also the synopsis of this article by Research Design Connection's Sally Augustin and Jean Marie Cackowski-Campbell:
Augustin, Sally and Jean Marie Cackowski (2009). “Wondering About Wander Gardens.” Landscape Architecture, Vol. 99, No. 1, pp. 27-29.
Synopsis: Wander gardens stimulate the sense and enhance the well-being of dementia patients.
http://archives.asla.org/lamag/lam09/january/research.html

Dijkstra, K., M.E. Pieterse, and A. Pruyn (2008). "Stress-reducing effects of indoor plants in the built healthcare environment: The mediating role of perceived attractiveness." Preventive Medicine, 47(3), 279-283.
Keywords: Indoor plants; stress

Donald, Caroline (2001). "What the Doctors Ordered." The Sunday Times, Style Section, November 11, p. 40. ("A group of medics and artists has transformed an Oxfordshire wilderness into a healing rural retreat.")

Donovan, Geoffrey and David Butry (2010). "Trees in the City: Valuing Trees in Portland, OR." Landscape and Urban Planning, Vol. 94.
Click here to link to part of Research Design Connections' summary in Landscape Architecture Magazine.

Dorian, Donna (2006)."True Blue." Garden Design, #137, April, p. 36 ("Landscape architect Topher Delaney creates a sanctuary sarden for the force").

Drabelle, Dennis (1990). "Beyond Shuffleboard: Designing Outdoor Spaces for the Elderly." in The Art of Landscape Architecture: Projects funded by grants from the Design Arts Program National Endowment for the Arts." Washington, D.C.: Partners for Livable Places, pp. 52-57.

Eagle, Amy (2005). "Garden Variety - Project team's creativity blooms to eliminate institutional feel." Health Facilities Management, September, p. 2. (About Grissim Metz Andriese Associates' William Beaumont Hospital).

Easton, Valerie (2005). "Respite on the Roof," The Seattle Times. ("A garden offers oasis from the ravages of cancer.")

Easton, Valerie (2003). "Havens of Healing," The Seattle Times. ("Daniel Winterbottom's gardens comfort the stressed-out as well as the sick.") http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/pacificnw/2003/0223/living.html

Elings, M. (2006). “People-Plant Interactions.” Hassink, J. & Dijk, M. (Eds.), Farming for Health (pp.43-55). Netherlands: Springer

Epstein, Mark (1997). "What is a Therapeutic Garden?" Oregon Land, ASLA Oregon Chapter, Winter.

Epstein, Mark (co-author) (1997). "Therapeutic Gardens." Oregon's Journal of Aging, Oregon Alliance of Senior and Health Services, Winter.

Epstein, Mark (2003). "Getting Serious About Therapeutic Practice." Landscape Architecture, Letter to the Editor, Vol. 93, No. 10, October, p. 49.

Epstein, Mark (1999). "Therapeutic Gardens in the Acute-Care Setting." Landscape Architecture Technical Information Series, American Society of Landscape Architects, August.

Esposito, Thomas J. (2003). "A Personal View of 'Healing' Gardens." Landscape Architecture, Letter to the Editor, Vol. 93, No. 10, October, 2003, p. 48.

Ewan, Rebecca Fish (2003). "Prescription for Healing." Landscape Architecture, Vol. 93, No. 2, February, pp. 59-65 & 86-88 (article about Richard Bloch's cancer survivors parks).

Ewan, Joseph M. and Rebecca Fish (2004). "The Butterfly Effect." Landscape Architecture, Vol. 94, No. 11, November, pp. 44-51 ("Can the modern example of the Elsie McCarthy Sensory Garden mitigate the glut of sensory-starved urban landscapes?").

Forsyth, Ann and Katherine Crewe (2004). "Six Approaches to Landscape Architecture." Landscape Architecture, Vol. 94, NO. 5, May, pp. 36-47. (One of the "six approaches" is "Spiritual Landscapes.")

Francis, Carolyn & Clare Cooper Marcus (1991). "Places People Take Their Problems." Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Conference of the Environmental Design Research Association, Mexico.

Francis, Carolyn and Clare Cooper Marcus (1992). "Restorative Places: Environment and Emotional Well-Being." EDRA Proceedings.

Francis, Mark and Randolph Hester (Eds.) (1990). The Meaning of Gardens. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Francis, Mark, Patricia Lindsey, and Jay Rice (Eds.) (1994). Healing Dimensions of People-Plant Relations. University of California, Davis: Center for Design Research.

Fried, Marc (1982). "Residential Attachment: Sources of Residential and Community Satisfaction." Journal of Social Issues, p. 38.

Frumkin, Howard (2001). "Beyond Toxicity, Human Health and the Natural Environment." American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 2001, Vol. 20, No. 3, pp. 234–240.
To read a good synopsis of this article, visit Meristem Library's Scientific Literature page.

Galbraith, J. and Westphal, J. (2003). "Therapeutic Garden Design: Martin Luther Alzheimer Garden." Juried Abstract and Presentation. Charleston, SC: Proceedings of the Council of Educators in Landscape Architecture.

Garcia, Chris (2011). “Bonner Healing Garden: A Place of Solidarity at Life's Threshold.” About Bonner Healing Garden in Sandpoint, ID.
An excerpt from this article and images of the garden were published in February, 2011 on the Therapeutic Landscapes Network Blog.
Click here to link to the blog post and here to read or download a pdf of the full article.

Gendall, John (2010). "Senior Circuit." Landscape Architecture, Vol. 100, No. 9, September, pp. 110-114. ("A playground in London's Hyde Park is designed for older exercisers.")
To read the first page of this article, link to the LAM website.

Gerlach-Spriggs, Nancy, Richard Enoch Kaufman and Sam Bass Warner, Jr. (1998). Restorative Gardens: The Healing Landscape. New Haven, CT and London: Yale University Press.

Gerlach-Spriggs, Nancy J. "Infection Control and Therapeutic Gardens: A Survey of Policies and Practice." Abstract in Candice Shoemaker (Ed), Interaction by Design, p. 305.

Gerteis, M., Edgman-Levitan, S., Daley, J. and T.L. Delbanco (Eds.) (1993). Through the Patient's Eyes: Understanding and Promoting Patient-Centered Care. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Gilmer, Maureen (1997). Rooted in the Spirit: Exploring Inspirational Gardens. Dallas: Taylor Publishing Company.

Goltsman, S., et al. (1992). The Accessibility Checklist: An Evaluation System for Buildings and Outdoor Settings. Berkeley, CA: MIG Communications.

Grant, Charlotte F. "The Healing Garden: Incorporating Garden Experience in Hospitals and Other Health Care Facilities." Masters Dissertation, Department of Landscape Architecture, University of Georgia, Athens, GA.

Greenberg, Mike (1995). The Poetics of Cities: Designing Neighborhoods that Work. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press.

Hagedorn, R. (1990). "Occupational Therapy and Environmental Consciousness." Landscape Design, No. 189, April, pp. 21-22.

Hahn, Addie (2010). "A Running, Hollering, Skipping, Playing Place: A Conversation with Teresia Hazen on the Legacy Emanuel Children's Hospital Garden." Guest post for the Therapeutic Landscapes Network Blog. Click here to link to the blog post with images, and here to read the full pdf.

Hammatt, Heather (2002). "A World Outside." Landscape Architecture, Vol. 92, No. 5, May, pp. 74-81.
"Landscape Architects design a detailed roof garden, providing a natural escape for patients and families at St. Louis Children's Hospital."

Hammatt, Heather (2002). "Judging Success." Landscape Architecture, Vol. 92, No. 11, November, pp. 34-40 (ASLA Student Design Competition Awards, including designs for healing gardens).

Hammerslough, J. (1997). "The Children's Hour: A Garden Offers Time to Heal." Garden Design, June/July, p. 50 (article about Douglas Reed's children's healing garden).

Hartig, Terry M., Gary W. Evans, and Marlis Mang (1991). "Restorative Effects of Natural Environmental Experiences." Environment and Behavior, Vol. 23, pp. 3-26.

Hayden, Dolores (1995). The Power of Place. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Heath, Yuko and Robert Gifford (2001). "Post-Occupancy Evaluation of Therapeutic Gardens in a Multi-Level Care Facility for the Aged." Activities, Adaptation & Aging, Vol. 25, No. 02_02, pp. 21-43.

Heathcote, Edwin (2005). "When Architecture Meets Healing," Financial Times, U.K., November. Link to the article: http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/374ffa48-5db1-11da-be9c-0000779e2340.html?nclick_check=1

Hebert, Bonnie B. (2003). "Design Guidelines of a Therapeutic Garden for Autistic Children." Master of Landscape Architecture Thesis for Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College.
Click HERE to link to a pdf of the thesis.
Abstract: This study establishes a set of guidelines for designing a therapeutic garden for autistic children. To understand how a garden may provide benefit, the literature on healing gardens is reviewed. The history of gardens in hospital settings and other healthcare institutions is examined. In addition, published work on the effects of nature on stress and health outcomes and theories as to why nature is restorative is included in the review of the literature. Because the focus of the study is outdoor environments for autistic children, published works on children's outdoor environments and the topic of play are reviewed as well.
The nature of autism and its characteristics are studied to determine the strengths, deficits, and needs of the autistic child as well as current treatment methodologies in use today including whether these treatments would lend themselves to an outdoor environment.
Informal interviews with professionals who work with autistic children on a daily basis give insight into these treatment methodologies. A field study conducted at a facility for autistic children in New Orleans allowed observations of autistic children and the professionals who work with them providing first hand information about the nature of autism and implementation of treatment methodologies.
Based on the extensive literature review, informal interviews, the field study, direct observation, and the writer's own experience of teaching autistic children in New Orleans for a year, design guidelines are established.

Helphand, Kenneth (2006). Defiant Gardens: Making Gardens in Wartime. San Antonio: Trinity University Press.
Defiant Gardens are, in the words of the author, "...gardens created in extreme or difficult environmental, social, political, economic, or cultural conditions. These gardens represent adaptation to challenging circumstances, but they can also be viewed from other dimensions as sites of assertion and affirmation." Helphand's book focuses on "Trench Gardens" on the Western Front in WWI, "Ghetto Gardens" in Nazi Europe, "Barbed-Wire Gardens" created by allied prisoners of war and civilian internees in Europe and Asia in the World Wars, gardens in Japanese internment camps in the United States during WWII, and gardens following WWII.
Helphand's website, also called Defiant Gardens, includes information from the book, and also brings these gardens into the present, encompassing prison gardens, community gardens, and gardens in Vietnam, Afghanistan, Iraq, and even Guantanamo.
Note: At the time of this entry, the website seems to be down. We hope it's a temporary glitch. The url is defiantgardens.com.
Listen to an NPR story about the book.
Read a Therapeutic Landscapes Network Blog post about Defiant Gardens and veterans' gardens.

Henry, Carol (2003). "Accessible Fun." Landscape Architecture Vol. 93, NO. 12, December, pp. 32-36 (article on a "sensory park" in Denver, CO).

Herzog, Thomas and Anna Bryce (2007). "Mystery and Preference in Within-Forest Settings." Environment and Behavior, Vol. 39, No. 6.

Hines, Susan (2008). "Can Parks Promote International Peace?" Landscape Architecture, Vol. 98, No. 3, March, pp. 36-45.
See also Ali, Saleem H. (2007). Peace Parks: Conservation and Conflict Resolution. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, and the Peace Parks Foundation website, www.peaceparks.org.

Hines, Susan (2008). "A Garden in Every Plot." Landscape Architecture, Vol. 98, No. 1, January, pp. 80-85.
"Julie Moir Messervy takes her message to the masses."

Hines, Susan (2005). "In Search of Healing Gardens." Landscape Architecture, Vol. 95, No. 12, December, pp. 108-113.
"Horticultural Therapist Teresia Hazen went looking for healing gardens at the National Institutes of Health. What she found was a mixed bag."

Hinshaw, Mark (2003). "Fenceless in Seattle." Landscape Architecture, Vol. 93, No. 9, September, pp. 142-144
"What had to happen before an urban medical center removed the barriers that kept the homeless out of its institutional landscape?"

Hiss, Tony (1990). The Experience of Place. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.

Holohan, C.J. ((1976). "Environmental Change in a Psychiatric Setting: A Social Systems Analysis." Human Relations, Vol. 29, No. 2, pp. 153-167.

Horne, Paula, Peter Boxall, and Wiktor Adamowicz (2005). "Multiple-Use Management of Forest Recreation Sites: A Spatially Explicit Choice Experiment." Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 207. Summarized in Research Design Connections by Jean Marie Cackowski and Sally Augustin.
In this Finnish study, researchers found that participants chose as their favorite landscapes those with familiar scenery and less biodiversity over landscapes rich in species. This type of study, though not specific to healthcare environments, can nevertheless be important for informing research-based design.

Howe-Colt, G. (1996). "The Healing Revolution." Life Magazine, September, pp. 34-50.

Howett, Catherine (1990). "Gardens Are Good Places for Dying." in Francis, Mark and Randolph Hester (Eds.) The Meaning of Gardens. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, pp. 252-257.

Huelat, Barbara J. (2007). Wayfinding: Design for Understanding. Center for Health Design Position Paper, October. Click here to access a pdf of the paper.

Hunt, Anne (2008). "Certification Course Offers Insight and Inspiration on Healthcare Garden Design." Article about Chicago Botanic Garden's Healthcare Garden Design Certification Program.
Click HERE to view or download the PDF.

Currently no references filed under i

Jaret, Peter (2007). "Reap the Benefits of Gardening." Martha Stewart Living, March, pp. 134-136. Click HERE to read the article online.

Jay, Roni. Gardens of the Spirit. Sterling Publisher's Co., Inc.

Johansson, Sonja (In Press). "Rusk Children's PlayGarden for Interactive Therapeutic Play." in Educational Facilities: The American Institute of Architects Exemplary Learning Environment Program, The Images Publishing Group PTY, LTD.

Johansson, Sonja and Nancy K. Chambers (2001). "Creating Outdoor Natural Play Environments for Disabled Children's Rehabilitation." Proceedings from the ASLA Annual Meeting, September.

Johansson, Sonja and Nancy K. Chambers (In Press). "A Children's PlayGarden at a Rehabilitation Hospital." Landscape Architecture Technical Information Series, American Society of Landscape Architects.

Jost, Daniel (2008). "Too Cool (Just) for School." Landscape Architecture, August, Vol. 98, No. 8, pp. 40-56. ("In Denver, a university-sponsored initiative is renovating schoolyards and opening them to the community as parks.")
See the Learning Landscapes website for more information: www.learninglandscapes.org

Joye, Yannick, Kim Willems, Malaika Brengman, and Kathleen Wolf (2010). "The Effects of Urban Retail Greenery on Consumer Experience: Reviewing the Evidence from a Restorative Perspective." Urban Forestry and Urban Greening, Vol. 9.

Julien, Andrew (1999). "The Architecture of Dying." The Hartford Courant, December 27, pp. A1, A9. (Article on the controversy over a hospice's move to a new building in Hartford, CT).

Kalb, Claudia and Vanessa Juarez (2005). "Into the Wild: A Scientific Approach." Newsweek, December 19.

Kamp, David (2006). "An Expanding Horizon – Gardens for Everyone." The Public Garden, a quarterly journal of the American Public Garden Association, July.

Kamp, David (2005). "Beyond the View: A Collaborative Approach in Creating Useful Outdoor Spaces for Aging Populations." Alzheimer's Care Quarterly, October/December.

Kamp, David (2005). "Hospital, Heal Thyself: Greening the Design and Construction of Healthcare Facilities." Environmental Building News, June.

Kamp, David (1996). "Healing Environments: Restorative Gardens." Loeb Fellowship Forum Magazine, Harvard Graduate School of Design, Spring/Summer, pp. 4-6.

Kaplan, Rachel (1973). "Some Psychological Benefits of Gardening." Environment and Behavior, Vol. 5, No. 2, pp. 145-61.

Kaplan, Rachel and Stephen (1992). "The Restorative Environment: Nature and Human Experience." The Role of Horticulture in Human Well-Being and Social Development, Portland, OR: Timber Press.

Kaplan, Rachel and Stephen (1989). The Experience of Nature. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Kaplan, Rachel and Stephen (1990). "Restorative Experience: The Healing Power of Nearby Nature," in Francis, Mark and Randolph Hester (Eds.) The Meaning of Gardens. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, pp. 238-243.

Kaplan, Rachel, Stephen Kaplan, and Robert L. Ryan (1998). With People in Mind: Design and Management of Everyday Nature. Washington, D.C.: Island Press.

Kaplan, Stephen and Jane Talbot (1983). "Psychological Benefits of a Wilderness Experience." In I. Altman and J. F. Wohlwil (Eds.) Behavior and Natural Environment. NY: Plenum.

Kavasch, E. Barrie (2002). The Medicine Wheel Garden: Creating Sacred Space for Healing, Celebration, and Tranquility. New York, NY: Bantam Books.

Keep, P. J., J. James, and M. Inman (1980). "Windows in the Intensive Therapy Unit." Anaesthesia, 35(3), pp. 257-262.
Synopsis: Patients in windowless ICUs had less accurate memories of the duration of their stay, and were generally less aware of time, and were twice as likely to experience hallucinations or delusions than patients in ICUs with windows.

Kellert, Stephen R. and Edward O. Wilson (Eds.) (1993). The Biophilia Hypothesis. Washington, D.C.: Island Press.

Kelly, Stephen (2008). "Accessible Play: No More Watching from the Sidelines." Landscape Architect and Specifyer News, October, Vol. 24, No. 10, p. 62.
This article features 7 playgrounds designed for universal play. Read the article online at www.landscapeonline.com/research/article/11315.

Kimball, Lidia Stone, ASLA (2006). “The Healing Garden at Providence Hospital.” ASLA Healthcare and Therapeutic Garden Professional Practice Network Newsletter, Spring: http://host.asla.org/groups/tgdpigroup/TGD_SP06.final.pdf

Kovary, Myra M. (1999). "Healing Landscapes: Design Guidelines for Mental Health Facilities." Master of Landscape Architecture Thesis, Cornell University.
A similar version of Kovary's thesis was published with the same title as Chapter 12 of Shoemaker, Candice A. (Ed.) (2002) Interaction by Design: Bringing People and Plants Together for Health and Well-Being. Ames, Iowa: Iowa State Press.
If you would like an electronic copy of this thesis, email the author, Myra Kovary

Laichter, Alison (2008). "Reentry and the Role of Bridged Programming: Reconnecting Former Prisoners and Their Communities." Thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree
Master of Science in Urban Planning. Graduate School of Architecture, Planning and Preservation, Columbia University.
Click HERE to view or download the PDF.

Leccese, Michael (1995). "Nature Meets Nurture." Landscape Architecture, Vol. 85, No. 1, January, pp. 68-71 (article about St. Michael Hospital).

Lewis, Charles A. (1973). "People-Plant Interaction: A New Horticultural Perspective." American Horticulturalist, Vol. 52, No. 2, pp. 18-24.

Lewis, Charles A. (1979). "Healing in the Urban Environment: A Person/Plant Perspective." Journal of the American Planning Association, No. 45, pp. 330-338.

Lewis, Charles A. (1990). "Gardening as Healing Process," in Francis, Mark and Randolph Hester (Eds.) The Meaning of Gardens. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, pp. 244-251.

Lewis, Charles A. (1996). Green Nature/Human Nature: The Meaning of Plants in Our Lives. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

Lewis, Charles A. "Human Health and Well-being: The Psychological, Physiological, and Sociological Effects of Plants on People." Acta Horticulturae, Vol. 391, pp. 31-39.

Lindemuth, Amy L. (2006). "SOU Courtyard Garden: Designing a Therapeutic Environment for Corrections Staff and Mentally Ill Offenders." Master of Landscape Architecture Thesis, University of Washington 2006.
This is a design thesis and includes design of a real site at a prison in WA state with literature and historical review.
If you would like an electronic copy of this thesis, email the author, Amy Lindemuth

Lindemuth, Amy L. (2007). "Designing Therapeutic Environments for Inmates and Prison Staff in the United States: Precedents and Contemporary Applications." Journal of Mediterranean Ecology, Vol. 8: 87-97.
Click on the link below to view the paper:
http://www.jmecology.com/%5Cpdf%5C2007%5C87-97%20Lindemuth.pdf
Abstract
American correctional facilities are stressful social environments within stark institutional settings. Although these settings are experienced by millions of inmates and staff every day and have negative effects on health, the restorative and therapeutic benefits that the architecture and landscape could provide are rarely given careful consideration by designers and other individuals involved in their planning, construction, or administration. Research has shown that gardens and natural settings can be physically and psychologically beneficial for inmates and prison staff in terms of reducing stress and alleviating mental fatigue. While gardens have been used in U.S. prisons since at least the 19th century for vocational training and therapy, their design has received little consideration. Further, the design and process of creating a garden with restorative and therapeutic qualities in a prison environment has received little attention in the Landscape Architecture literature. This paper discusses the potential benefits of prison gardens as well as the elements necessary to design, implement, and maintain a successful prison garden project. Research into historic and contemporary precedents of prison gardens is discussed as well as the authorÕs experience developing a design for prison staff and mentally ill inmates within a state facility northeast of Seattle, Washington.

Lohr, Virginia I. (1999). Review of Nancy Gerlach-Spriggs' book, Restorative Gardens: The Healing Landscape, Landscape Journal, Vol. 18, No. 2, Fall, pp. 194-195.

Lynch, Kevin and Gary Hack (1984). Site Planning, 3rd ed. Cambridge: The MIT Press.

Mahan, Catherine and Lidia Stone Kimball, ASLA (2006). “The Healing Garden at Providence Hospital.” ASLA Healthcare and Therapeutic Garden Professional Practice Network Newsletter, Spring.

Mahan, Catherine (2006). “Memory Support Gardens: Designing for Dementia.” AAHSA's Future Age, January/February.

Mahan, Catherine (2003). “Maintaining the Healing Garden.” Providence Hospital Symposium, Washington D.C.

Malkin, Jain (2008). A Visual Reference for Evidence-Based Design. Center for Health Design. You can order the book directly from the CHD website.

Malone, Sara (2006). "The Art of Healing: William Beaumont Hospital South Tower Addition.” Medical Construction & Design, May/June, p. 54.

Marberry, S. O. (Ed.) (2006). Improving Healthcare With Better Building Design, Health Administration Press. Order the book and download an excerpt from Chapter 8 on Cultural Transformation by D. Kirk Hamilton and Robin Orr from the Center for Health Design website.

Marberry, Sara. O. (Ed.) (1997). Healthcare Design. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Marberry, S. O. (Ed.) (1995). Innovations in Healthcare Design: Selected Presentations from the First Five Symposia on Healthcare. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.

Marcus, Clare Cooper* and Marni Barnes, Eds. (1999). Healing Gardens: Therapeutic Benefits and Design Recommendations. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1999. Received the 2000 EDRA/Places "Place Research" Award; see Bressi, Todd.
(actually "Cooper Marcus, Clare" but as there is confusion about which last name comes first, we're citing the book here as well).

Martin, Frank Edgerton (2002). "Doctor's Diagnosis." Landscape Architecture, Vol. 92, No. 12, December, pp. 82-84 (interview with Dr. Joanne Westphal).

Matsuo, E. and P. D. Relf (1995). "Horticulture in Human Life, Culture, and Environment: International Symposium, 22 August 1994." Acta Horticulturae, Leuven, Belgium: International Society for Horticultural Science.

Maxwell, Jeff (2002 or 2003). "Restorative Environments and Landscape Architecture in Healthcare Settings." University of Florida (paper received the 2003 ASLA Student Awards Commendation for Graduate Individual Research--see Landscape Architecture, Vol. 93, No. 9, September, p.31).

McDowell, Christopher Forrest and Tricia Clark McDowell. The Sanctuary Garden: Creating a Place of Refuge in Your Yard or Garden. Fireside.

McCarthy, Thomas J. (2009). “Universal Design.” Landscape Architecture, Vol. 99, No. 9, pp. 66-77.
Synopsis: Natural public places like parks can be made more accessible for people with disabilities while also protecting the natural environment.
Keywords: Universal Design, Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
http://archives.asla.org/lamag/lam09/september/universal_design.html

McCormick, Kathleen (1995). "Realm of the Senses." Landscape Architecture, Vol. 85, No. 1, January, pp. 61-63 (article about Joel Schnaper Memorial Garden at Cardinal Cooke Health Care Center AIDS unit).

McCray, Talia and Frederick R. Steiner, FASLA (2009). "Why Our Kids Should Be Able to Walk to School." Landscape Architecture, Vol. 99, No. 9, pp. 187-188. ("...and other places in their communities. It's all about health, say pediatricians.")
Keywords: Children, school, obesity, pediatricians

McGowan, Bill (2003). "Private Spaces, Open Spaces and Asylum in Therapeutic Communities." International Journal for Therapeutic & Supportive Organizations. Vol 24, No. 3, Fall, pp 167-186.

Menzies, Dick and Jean Bourbeau (1997). "Building-Related Illness." The New England Journal of Medicine, November, pp. 1524-1531.
For a good synopsis of this article, visit Meristem Library's Scientific Literature page.

Messervy, Julie Moir (2008). "Places From Away: Archetypal Landscapes." Landscape Architecture, Vol. 98, No. 1, January, pp. 86-89.

Messervy, Julie Moir, Phil Puzick and Steven A. Fritts (2007). “Nature Deficit Disorder And the Landscape Architect.” Landscape Architecture, Letters to the Editor, Vol. 97, No. 10, October, 2007, p. 25.

Messervy, Julie Moir (1995). The Inward Garden: Creating a Place of Beauty and Meaning. Boston: Little, Brown and Company.

Messervy, Julie Moir (1990). Contemplative Gardens, 1st ed. Charlottesville, VA: Howell Press.

Metz, Randall K. (2005). "An Interior Garden." Landscape Architecture, Vol. 95, No. 4, April, pp. 46-52 ("A hospital tower's atrium garden [the Debra Saber-Salisbury Memorial Garden at William Beaumont Hospital] brings Michigan's outdoor inside"). See also Pamela Nelly's Letter to the Editor in response to Metz's article: "Artificial Trees? No Substitute for the Real Thing." in Landscape Architecture, Vol. 95, No. 6, June, pp. 18-19.

Metz, Randall K., ASLA (2006). “Gardens for All Seasons.” Medical Construction & Design, July/August, p. 18.
(William Beaumont Hospital South Tower Addition: Atrium Gardens With Spaces for Respite and Play).

Meyer, Wendy (200 7). "Persistence of Memory: Scent Gardens for Therapeutic Life Review in Communities for the Elderly." Thesis for Master of Landscape Architecture at the University of Texas at Arlington.
Click HERE to view a pdf of the this thesis.

Millet, Patrick (2009). “Integrating Horticulture into the Vocational Rehabilitation Process of Individuals with Fatigue, Chronic Fatigue, and Burnout: A Theoretical Model.” Journal of Therapeutic Horticulture, Vol. XIX, pp. 11-22.
The references list in this article is also very useful.
Synopsis: Horticultural Therapy as a rehabilitation process following medical treatment for those suffering from fatigue, chronic fatigue, burnout and other stress-related health problems.
Keywords: Mental Health, Horticultural Therapy, Stress, Fatigue, Burnout

Minter, Sue (1993). The Healing Garden. Rutland, VT: Charles E. Tuttle Company, Inc.

Mitrione, Steve, M.D. (2006). "Clare Apartments: Design and Evaluation of a Therapeutic Landscape for People Living with HIV Disease." MLA Capstone Thesis, University of Minnesota Department of Landscape Architecture.
Click HERE to view or download the PDF.

Mittelstaedt Jr., Arthur H. (2008). “Play Center Safety Considerations.” Landscape Architecture and Specifier News, Vol. 24, No. 10, pp. 28-30, 156.
http://www.landscapeonline.com/research/article/11342

Molden, Stephanie, Nancy Chambers, Matthew Wichrowski, Gwenn Fried, and Harvey Loomis (1999). Growth Through Nature: A Preschool Program for Children with Disabilities. Sagapress (Article about the Enid Haupt Glass Garden at the Rusk Institute for Rehabilitative Medicine).

Mooney, Patrick and R. Hoover (1996). "Design of Restorative Landscapes for Alzheimer's Patients." American Society of Landscape Architects Annual Meeting Proceedings, Washington, D.C.

Mooney, P. F. and Milstein, S.L. (1994). "Assessing the Benefits of a Therapeutic Horticulture Program for Seniors in Intermediate Care." In The Healing Dimensions of People-Plant Relations, Francis, M., Lindsey P. and Rice, J.S. (eds.), UC Davis, CA: Center for Design Research, pp. 173-194.

Mooney, P. and Nicell, P.L. (1992). "The Importance of Exterior Environment for Alzheimer Residents: Effective Care and Risk Management." Healthcare Management Forum, 5, (2), pp. 23-29.
For a good synopsis of this article, visit Meristem Library's Scientific Literature page.

Mooney, P. and Errett, M.C. (1991). "Introduction to Horticultural Therapy: A Horticultural Therapy Program for Seniors in Intermediate Care Facilities." Vancouver, British Columbia: The Botanical Garden of the University of British Columbia.

Moore, Ernest O. (1981-82). "A Prison Environment's Effect on Health Care Service Demands." Journal of Environmental Systems, p. 2.

Moore, Robin C. (2008). "Reasons to Smile at Teardrop." Landscape Architecture Magazine, Vol. 97, No. 12, pp. 134-136. "Project for Public Spaces banished it to its Hall of Shame, but a postoccupancy evaluation [POE] study suggests that New Yorkers are embracing Teardrop Park."

Moore, Robin C. (1993). Plants for Play. Berkeley, CA: MIG Communications (children's gardens; includes lists of poisonous and harmful plants).

Mosko, Martin Hakubai (2003). Landscape as Spirit: Creating a Contemplative Garden. Weatherhill.

Munts, Pat (2007). "Healing Goes Beyond Medicine: Gardens give patients bonus benefits," SpokesmanReview.com, May 15. http://www.spokesmanreview.com/tools/story_pf.asp?ID=189344

Murray, Elizabeth (1997). Cultivating Sacred Space: Gardening for the Soul. San Francisco: Pomegranite.

Neuberger, Konrad (1988). "Some Conceptual Ideas in Horticultural Therapy." Journal of Therapeutic Horticulture. Vol. III, pp. 9-14.
A pdf of this and other articles can be found at: http://www.konrad-neuberger.de/english/angebote/artikel/index_artikel.html

O'Connell, Kim (1999). "The Harmony of Spaces." Landscape Architecture, Volume 89, No. 9, September, pp. 102-126 (article on Feng Shui in landscape design).

Orians, Gordon H. and Judith H. Heerwagen (1992). "Evolved Responses to Landscapes." in Jerome H. Barkow, Leda Cosmides, and John Tooby (Eds.) The Adapted Mind, Evolutionary Psychology and Generation of Culture, New York: Oxford University Press.

Paine, Robert and Carolyn Francis (1990). "Hospital Outdoor Spaces" in Clare Cooper Marcus and Carolyn Francis (Eds.) People Places: Design Guidelines for Urban Open Space. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.

Painter, Kim (2007). "Plant Seeds of Healing: Nature Makes You Feel Better," USA Today. Read the article at: http://www.usatoday.com/news/health/painter/2007-04-15-seeds-of-healing_N.htm?csp=34

Passon, Camille, Daniel Levy, and Vicente del Rio (2008). "Implications of Adolescents' Perceptions and Values for Planning and Design." Journal of Planning and Education, Vol. 28.
See also the synopsis of this article by Research Design Connection's Sally Augustin and Jean Marie Cackowski-Campbell:
Augustin, Sally and Jean Marie Cackowski (2009). “When Designing Public Places, Including Teenagers Is (duh!) a Good Idea.” Landscape Architecture, Vol. 99, No. 1, pp. 22-25. http://www.researchdesignconnections.com/
Synopsis: The article examines why teenagers are not considered when outdoor public places are being designed, and what the benefits could be of including them into this process.
Keywords: Teenagers, Outdoor Public Spaces, Design Features.
http://archives.asla.org/lamag/lam09/january/research.html

Perkins, N. H. (2000). "Using the Physical Environment as a Therapeutic Tool: Applied Research in Hospital Settings." Environmental Design and Research Association, San Francisco, CA.

Perkins, N. H. (1999). "Psychiatric Hospital Environments." Case Study in Clare Cooper Marcus and Marni Barnes (Eds.) Healing Gardens. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Perkins, N. H. (1999). "Interactive Interfaces: Designing Digital Surveys for Research and Practice." Environmental Design and Research Association (EDRA), Orlando, FL.

Perkins, N. H. and L. Burcher (1999). "Participatory Programming for Hospital Gardens." Environmental Design and Research Association, Orlando, FL.

Perkins, N. H. (1998) "The Physical Environment as a Therapeutic Tool." XVI Congress of the World Association of Social Psychiatry, Vancouver, B.C.

Perkins, N. H. and S. Barnhart (1996). "Master Plan for the Homewood Health Centre." Guelph, ON.

Perkins, N. H. (1995). "Health and Healthcare: Using the Natural Environment as Treatment." Wellington District Health Council.

Perkins, N.H. (1995). "Computer Assisted Testing Module Designs." Design Cafe, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON.

Perkins, N. H. (1995). "Natural Environments and Human Well-being: The Necessity of Linking Psychiatric Therapy to the Setting: History, Applications and Implications." Homewood Hospital Board of Directors General Meeting, Guelph, ON.

Perry, Suzanne (2007). "The Importance of Nature: The Wellness Garden Program at Glacier Hills Retirement Community." Michigan Alzheimer's Disease Research Center Newsletter, Spring, pp. 4 & 7. http://www.med.umich.edu/alzheimers/spring-07.pdf

Plae Inc., Limited Sea Reach, USDA Forest Service (1993). Universal Access to Outdoor Recreation: Design Guide. Berkeley, CA: Mig Communications.

Pliska, Shane. "Plants That Heal: Indoor Therapeutic Gardens." Interiorscape Magazine.
Case study of Henry Ford Hospital. View the article online at http://www.planterra.com/research/article_healinggarden.php

Pliska, Shane (2005). "Biophilia: Selling the Love of Nature." Interiorscape Magazine, January/February.
View the article online at http://www.planterra.com/research/article_biophilia.php

Pliska, Shane (2005). "Helping to Heal: Therapeutic Garden Design." INTERIORSCAPE magazine, November/December, pp. 16-22.
Click HERE to view a PDF of the article, or you can view the article online at: http://www.planterra.com/research/article_therapeutic.php

Potwarka, Luke, Andrew Kaczynski, and Andrea Flack (2008). "Places to Play: Association of Park Space and Facilities with Healthy Weight Status Among Children." Journal of Community Health, Vol. 33.
See also the synopsis of this article by Research Design Connection's Sally Augustin and Jean Marie Cackowski-Campbell:
Augustin, Sally and Jean Marie Cackowski (2009). “On the Playground, Obstacles Jump-Start Activity.” Landscape Architecture, Vol. 99, No. 1, pp. 25-26.
Synopsis: Obstacles on a playground stimulate activity in children ages 3-5.
http://archives.asla.org/lamag/lam09/january/research.html

Currently no references filed under q

Rafkin, Louise (2001). "The Seeds of Stronger Bones." Health, April, pp. 58-62 ("Want to prevent osteoporosis and beautify your environment? Get to work in your own backyard").

Rainey, Reuben M. (2010) "Therapeutic Landscapes: America's Nineteenth-Century Rural Cemeteries." View (the magazine of the Library of American Landscape History), Summer, No. 10, pp. 18-21.

Raver, Anne (1994). "When Hope Falters, Balm for the Soul." The New York Times, December 29, pp. C1, C6.
Article about designer Topher Delaney.

Rawlings, Romy (1998). Healing Gardens. Minocqua, WI: Willow Creek Press.

Reed, Douglas (1995). "The Therapeutic Garden." Art New England, August/September, p. 21

Regnier, Victor (2002). Design for Assisted Living: Guidelines for Housing the Physically and Mentally Ill. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Relf, Diane (Ed.) (1992). The Role of Horticulture in Human Well-Being and Social Development. Portland, OR: Timber Press.

Ridgers, Nicola, Gareth Stratton, Stuart Fairclough, and Jos Twisk. (2007). "Long-Term Effects of Playground Markings and Physical Structures on Children's Recess Physical Activity Levels." Preventive Medicine, Vol. 44.

Rodiek, S. (2009). Access to Nature for Older Adults [3 DVDs - 93 minutes]. College Station, TX: Center for Health Systems & Design.
"Innovative multimedia educational program based on three DVDs:
1. The Value of Nature for Older Adults (28 min);
2. Improving Outdoor Access for Older Adults (31 min); and
3. Safe and Usable Outdoor Spaces for Older Adults (34 min).
An interactive website (www.accesstonature.org) is being developed to provide updatable in-depth research-based information. The program is being disseminated at the national and international levels to a diverse target audience of architects, landscape architects, interior architects, long-term care administrators, gerontologists, researchers/ educators, government policy planners. All three DVDs were certified for Continuing Education credit (HSW - Health, Safety and Welfare) by the American Institute of Architects (AIA) in June 2009."
Read our review of this DVD series on the TLN Blog.
Discount! Members of the Therapeutic Landscapes Network receive a 10% discount off single and sets of these DVDs. To join the TLN, click HERE and write "DVDs" in the "Any other information you want to add" box.

2008 Rodiek, S.(2008) “Outdoor Space for Aging: Environmental Assessment and Survey of Assisted Living Residents and Staff.” Proceedings of the 39th Annual Conference of the Environmental Design Research Association, B. Rodriguez & M. Chapin (Eds.), p. 62-69.

Rodiek, S. (2008). "A New Tool for Evaluating Senior Living Environments." Seniors Housing & Care Journal, 16(1), 3-9.
Selected as best paper of the year in this journal.

Rodiek, Susan and B. Schwarz, Eds. (2007). Outdoor Environments for People with Dementia. New York: The Haworth Press, Inc.
" The first published collection of peer-reviewed papers on outdoor environments for older adults with Alzheimer's and other dementias. Includes chapters by prominent gerontologists, architects, and landscape architects. Simultaneously published as a two-volume special issue in Journal of Housing for the Elderly."

2007 Wang, Z.*, Rodiek, S., and Shepley, M. “Residential Site Environments and Yard Activities of Older Adults.” In Report on University Research (Vol 2) pp. 37-57. Washington, DC: The American Institute of Architects. Project funded and paper accepted as result of competitive juried process.
(* denotes Student as co-author)

Rodiek, S. (2006). "A missing link: Can enhanced outdoor space improve seniors housing?" Seniors Housing and Care Journal, 14, 3-19.
Selected as best paper of the year in this journal.

Rodiek, S. (2005). "Resident perceptions of physical environment features that influence outdoor usage at assisted living facilities." Journal of Housing for the Elderly, 19(3-4), 95-107.

Rodiek, Susan. & Schwarz, B. (2005). "The outdoors as a multifaceted resource for older adults." Journal of Housing for the Elderly, 19(3-4), 1-6.
" This introduction by the editors provides contextual background on the evidence base on this topic, and summarizes the peer-reviewed papers included in the special issue (6 pages)."

Rodiek, Susuan, & Schwarz, B. (Eds.). (2005). The Role of the Outdoors in Residential Environments for Aging. New York: The Haworth Press.
"The first published collection of peer-reviewed papers on planning outdoor environments in long-term care settings. Includes chapters by prominent gerontologists, architects, and landscape architects. Simultaneously published as a single-volume special issue in Journal of Housing for the Elderly."

Rodiek, S. D., & Fried, J. T. (2005). "Access to the outdoors: Using photographic comparison to assess preferences of assisted living residents." Landscape and Urban Planning, 73(2-3), 184-199.

Rodiek, S., and Abbott, E., (2005). “Outdoor Space for Aging: Session One.” "Approximately 200 copies of this CD-based multimedia prototype were produced and distributed to educators and professionals in the long-term care industry, for review and evaluation. Software format: Macromedia Producer. (Running time: approx. 18 minutes)."

Rodiek, S., Fried, J. (2005). "Access to the Outdoors: Using Photographic Comparison to Assess Preferences of Assisted Living Residents." Journal of Landscape and Urban Planning, Vol. 73, (2-3), 184-199.

Chalfont, G.E., Rodiek, S. (2005). "Building Edge: An Ecological Approach to Research and Design of Environments for People with Dementia." Alzheimer's Care Quarterly: Innovations in Care. Vol 6 (4), 341-348.

Rodiek, S. D. (2002). "Influence of an outdoor garden on mood and stress in older persons." Journal of Therapeutic Horticulture, 13, 13-21.

Roets, Susan (2006). "Healthcare and Landscape Architecture: Investigation and Design at an Assisted Living Home to Promote Healthy Aging." Master of Landscape Architecture Thesis, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY.
Click HERE to link to a pdf of the thesis.
Abstract: This research study investigates the person-environment relationship among older people residing in an Assisted Living Facility with the intention to raising awareness of the importance of our elders and their environment. The findings that have developed from this study are aimed to encourage caregivers to provide environments that promote health and support dignified aging. This study uses observations, questionnaires, and interviews as strategies to provide a comprehensive understanding of the role of the outdoor space at an assisted living facility. The information gathered reveals the needs and issues of the facility stakeholders. Synthesis of the findings that develop from on-site investigation and reviewed case studies was used to develop a design solution that meets the needs of the users and improves the therapeutic value of the outdoor environment.

Rogers, Juliet L., PhD (2006). "The Debate over Decorative Fountains in Healthcare Environments: How Great is the Infection Control Risk?" Research Design Connections, Winter.
Click HERE to view a PDF of the article.

Rojas-Burke, Joe (2006). "Therapist cultivates patients' recovery by taking them into the garden," The Oregonian.
Click HERE to view a PDF of the article.

Rothert, Gene (2000). "Create an Enabling Garden." Fine Gardening, No. 72, March-April, pp. 58-61.

Rothert, Gene. The Enabling Garden: Creating Barrier-Free Gardens.

Russell, J. S. (1992). "Defending Communities." Architectural Record, Vol. 180, No. 8, August, p. 39.

Russell, Sabin (1999). "Pediatric Hospice May Be a First." San Francisco Chronicle, October 19, pp. A17-18 (article about pediatric hospice in San Leandro, CA with a design "inspired by the English pediatric hospice system," including a strong emphasis on the garden).

Ryan, Leslie (1995). "Three Gardens for Regina Margherita Hospital/Church of St. Cosimato." Landscape Architecture, Vol. 85, No. 12, p. 57.

Sachs, Naomi (1999). "Psychiatric Hospitals." Chapter 6 in Clare Cooper Marcus & Marni Barnes (Eds.) Healing Gardens. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., pp. 235-322.

Sachs, Naomi (2000-2001). "The Therapeutic Landscapes Database." Newsletter for the ASLA Professional Interest Group on Therapeutic Garden Design, Vol. 2, No. 1, Winter, p. 3; re-published in LandOnline, 2000.

Sachs, Naomi (2003). "Healing Landscapes." arcCA, Vol. 03.4, pp. 36-39 & 51.

Sacks, Oliver (1993). A Leg to Stand On. New York: Harper.

Sadler, Charles King (2007). "Design Guidelines for Effective Hospice Gardens Using Japanese Garden Principles." Master of Landscape Architecture Thesis, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY.
Click HERE to link to a pdf of the thesis.
Abstract: This project will create hospice garden design guidelines using Japanese garden and architectural principles and apply them to an actual site for the purpose of creating a restorative hospice garden. To support this research study a literature and precedent review will determine what has been done. The literature review will investigate healthcare design, hospice garden design, principles of restoration, and Japanese garden architectural principles. Then the study will show why a Japanese garden is a preferred garden type and is applicable to a restorative garden. This project will also illustrate what constitutes a restorative landscape, using guidelines from the literature review. A precedent review of existing healthcare gardens will bring to light what criteria creates a restorative Healthcare garden design and what design pitfalls to avoid. From the precedent review and literature view design guidelines for creating restorative hospice gardens will be created. These guidelines will then be applied to an exisiting hospice site to create an informed design solution.

Said, Ismail and Mohd Sarofil Abu Bakar (2008). "Affordances of Ward and Garden in the Restorative Process of Hospitalized Children," Journal of Therapeutic Horticulture, Vol. 18, pp. 18-31.

Salamy, Virginia (1995). "Healing Gardens: Design Guidelines for Landcape Architects." Master of Landscape Architecture Thesis, Ohio State University.

Santa Fe Cancer Center (2003). "Providing the Best Cancer Care Available: The Santa Fe Cancer Center at St. Vincent Hospital." Ladies' Home Journal, Vol. CXX, No. 9, September, p. 149.

Search, Gay (2001). The Healing Garden: Gardening for the Mind, Body, and Soul. Ontario, Canada: Winding Stair Press.

Shepley, Mardelle McCuskey and Peni Wilson (1999). "Designing for Persons with AIDS: A Post-Occupancy Study at the Bailey-Boushay House." Journal of Architectural and Planning Research, Vol. 16, No. 1, Spring, pp. 17-32.

Sherman, Sandra A., James W. Varni, Roger S. Ulrich, Vanessa L. Malcarne (2004). "Post-occupancy evaluation of healing gardens in a pediatric cancer center." Landscape and Urban Planning.
Abstract
This study evaluates three healing gardens surrounding a pediatric cancer center. All gardens contained seating, flowers and plants, but varied in size, features, and in user groups’ access to them. A post-occupancy evaluation (POE) yielded a dataset of 1400 garden-users for whom demographic information, activities, and length-of-stay were recorded. Results indicate differential usage patterns across gardens, user category (patient, visitor, or staff), and age (adults and children). The largest garden with most direct patient access was the most used. Staff mostly used the gardens to walk-through or to sit and eat, rarely interacting with features intended for active engagement. Despite patient and child-friendly designs, the overwhelming majority of visitors were adults who mostly engaged in sedentary activities. Children who did use the gardens interacted with garden features significantly more than adults. Although patient rooms are situated at ground-level around the gardens to promote window views of the gardens, the findings suggest an inverse relationship between patient window use and the number of people in the gardens. Finally, preliminary data suggest that emotional distress and pain are lower for all groups when in the gardens than when inside the hospital. Provisional design implications of these findings are discussed.
This article can be purchased at sciencedirect.com: ScienceDirect

Shoemaker, Candice A. (Ed.) (2002). Interaction by Design: Bringing People and Plants Together for Health and Well-Being. Ames, Iowa: Iowa State Press.

Slavens, Suzanne Perry (2008). "The Psychosocial Benefits of Exposure to Natural Settings in Long-Term Care: An Evaluation of the Wellness Garden Program at Glacier Hills Retirement Community." Journal of Therapeutic Horticulture, Vol. 18, pp. 32-41.
View or download the article: www.med.umich.edu/alzheimers/PDF/spring-07.pdf

Sleight, Peter F. (2000). "Spiritual Gardening." The Hartford Courant, February 26, p. D3 (book review of Christopher Forrest McDowell and Tricia Clark McDowell's book, The Sanctuary Garden: Creating a Place of Refuge in Your Yard or Garden and Roni Jay's Gardens of the Spirit.

Smith, Daniel B. (2010). "Is There an Ecological Unconsciousness?" The New York Times Magazine, January 31, pp. 36-41.

Smith, Jerry (2007). Health and Nature: The Influence of Nature on Design of the Environment of Care. Center for Health Design Position Paper, October. Click here to access a pdf of the paper.

Snyder, Donald R., Anne Rothschadl and Marcy Marchello (2006). Inclusive Outdoor Recreation for Persons with Disabilities: Protocols and Activities. Enumclaw, WA: Idyll Arbor Inc.

Spafford, Anne M. (1991). "The Prison Landscape and the Captive Audience: Is Nature Necessity or Amenity?" Landscape Architecture, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign.

Speckhardt, Lisa (2001). "Creating Places Worth Experiencing." Landscape Architecture, Vol. 91, No. 7, July, pp. 84-87 ("Author Tony Hiss wants to build connections between people and landscapes").

Speidel, William (2003). "Getting Serious About Therapeutic Practice." Landscape Architecture, Letter to the Editor, Vol. 93, No. 10, October, pp. 49-50.

Speidel, William (2004). Book review of Shoemaker, Candice A. (Ed.) Interaction by Design. in Landscape Architecture, Vol. 94, No. 1, January, pp. 108-109.

Squire, David (2002). The Healing Garden: Natural Healing for the Mind, Body, and Spirit. London: Vega.

Sternberg, Esther (2009). Healing Places: The Science and Place of Well-Being. London, England, and Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press/Harvard University Press.
Read a review of the book on the TLNBlog;
Link to Esther Sternberg's website;
A PBS show, "The Science of Healing," was produced based on the book, and can be ordered from Amazon.com. You can view a preview HERE.

Stevens, Margaret (1995). "The Promotion of Wellness." Landscape Architecture, Vol. 85, No. 1, January, pp. 64-67 (article about Patricia Neal Rehabilitation Center and Fort Sanders Regional Medical Center).

Stevens, Margaret (1995). "Life in Fast-Forward Reverse." Landscape Architecture, Vol. 85, No. 1, January, pp. 76-79 (article about Alzheimer's care gardens).

Stoneham, Jane and Peter Thoday (1996). Landscape Design for Elderly and Disabled People. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Garden Art Press.

Stoneham, J. A., A. D. Kendle and Peter R. Thoday. "Horticultural Therapy: Horticulture's Contribution to the Quality of Life of Disabled People." Acta Horticulturae, Vol. 391, pp. 65-75.

Stoner, Tom and Carolyn Rapp (2008). Open Spaces Sacred Places. Annapolis, MD: TKF Foundation.
Click HERE to go to the TKF websiteto buy the book and learn more about the organization.
Click HERE to read a review of the book on the TLN Blog.

Streep, Peg (1999). Spiritual Gardening: Creating Sacred Space Outdoors. Alexandria, VA: Time Life Books.

Sullivan, M. (1979). “Horticultural Therapy: The Role Gardening Plays in Healing.” American Health Care Association, May, pp.3-8.

Sutro, Dirk (1995). "Mending Wall." Landscape Architecture, Vol. 85, No. 1, January, pp. 72-75 (article about San Diego Children's Hospital).

Tai, Lolly, Mary Taylor Haque, Gina K. McLellan, and Erin Jordan Knight (2006). Designing Outdoor Environments for Children: Landscaping Schoolyards, Gardens, and Playgrounds. New York: McGraw Hill.

Tai, Lolly & Baldev Lamba (2003). "Building to Learn, Part I." Landscape Architecture, Vol. 93, No. 3, March, pp. 50-55 & 86- (article about a design/build studio at the University of Washington, including building of a rooftop garden for Cancer Lifeline in Seattle).

Tenngart, Carina and Caroline Hagerhall (2007). "Are Gardens Restorative Environments? Assessing the Perceived Restorativeness of Two Healing Gardens." Department of Landscape Planning Alnarp, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences. Conference proceedings from the conference Open Space/People Space, organized by Open Space (The research centre for inclusive access to outdoor environments, in association with Landscape Architecture, Edinburgh College of Art and the School of the Built Environment, Heriot-Watt University.)
Abstract
The aim of this study is to investigate whether gardens are perceived as restorative and whether different gardens can be more or less restorative. Also, we hypothesized that students in landscape architecture have particular skills in detecting differences in outdoor environments. Forty-one psychology students and 33 landscape architecture students judged two different gardens using the
Perceived Restorativeness Scale (PRS). The result indicates that the PRS was successful in assessing the restorative value of gardens. The PRS can be used as a tool for evaluating different gardens by comparing the different subscales and, as predicted, there were differences between the subject groups' judgements of perceived restorativeness. The result has implications for our understanding of
how we can design places intended to be restorative.
Link to the article to read or download the pdf: www.openspace.eca.ac.uk/conference/proceedings/PDF/Tenngart.pdf

Thoday, R. (1982). "The Design and Use of Gardens and Grounds for Disabled People." Landscape Design, Vol. 11, February.

Thompson, J. D. and G. Goldin (1975). The Hospital: A Social and Architectural History. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.

Thompson, William J. (1998). "A Question of Healing." Landscape Architecture, Vol. 88, No. 4, April, pp. 66-92.

Thompson, J. William (1999). "1999 ASLA Awards." Landscape Architecture, October, p. 73.

Thompson, J. William (2000). "Healing Words: Whither the Design of Therapeutic Gardens?" Landscape Architecture, Vol. 90, No. 1, January, pp. 54-57 & 73-75.

Thorrson, Sofia, Tsuyoshi Honjo, Fredrik Lindberg, Ingegard Eliasson, and En-Mi Lim (2007). "Thermal Comfort and Outdoor Activity in Japanese Urban Public Places." Environment and Behavior, Vol. 39, No. 5.

Tidball, Keith G. and Krasny, Marianne E., Eds. (2011). Greening in the Red Zone: Disaster, Resilience and Community Greening. Springer.
From the Springer website, where you can also order the book: Access to green space and the act of creating green spaces is well understood to promote human health, especially in therapeutic contexts among individuals suffering traumatic events. Less well understood, though currently being studied, is the role of access to green space and the act of creating and caring for it in promoting neighbourhood health and well being as related to social-ecological system resilience. An important implication of Greening in the Red Zone lies in specific instances of greening and the presence of greened spaces in promoting and enhancing recovery, and perhaps resilience, in social-ecological systems disrupted or perturbed by violent conflict or other catastrophic disaster. This edited volume provides illustration and interpretation of these phenomena through a series of cases or examples of Greening in the Red Zone, which will explore how access to green space and the act of creating green spaces in extreme situations might contribute to resistance, recovery, and resilience of social-ecological systems.

Trust for Public Land. The Economic Benefits of Parks and Open Space. San Francisco. Visit the TPL website to download this and other related reports.

Tyson, Martha M. (1998 and 2008). The Healing Landscape: Therapeutic Outdoor Environments. Originally published by New York: McGraw-Hill; re-published 2008 by Madison, WI: Parallel Press. Go to Martha Tyson's website to order the book.

Tyson, Martha M. (2002). "Naturally Mapped Outdoor Environments and Independence." Alzheimer's Care Quarterly, Therapeutic Environments Issue.

Ulrich, Roger S. (2001). "Effects of Healthcare Environmental Design on Medical Outcomes." Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Design and Health, Stockholm, Sweden.

Ulrich, Roger S. (2000). "Evidence-Based Garden Design for Improving Health Outcomes." Therapeutic Gardens Conference, University of Minnesota, November.

Ulrich, Roger S. (2000). "Influence of Garden on Health Outcomes." American Society of Landscape Architects Annual Meeting, Therapeutic Gardens Forum, Missouri Botanical Garden, October.

Ulrich, Roger S. (1993). "Biophilia, Biophobia, and Natural Landscapes." In Stephen R. Kellert and Edward O. Wilson (Eds.) The Biophilia Hypothesis, Washington, D.C: Island Press/Shearwater: pp. 74-137.

Ulrich, Roger S. (1992). "Effects of Interior Design on Wellness: Theory and Scientific Research." Journal of Healthcare Design, Vol. 3, pp. 97-109.

Ulrich, Roger S. (1992). "How Design Impacts Wellness." Healthcare Forum Journal, Vol. 20, pp. 20-25.

Ulrich, Roger S. (1992). "The Influences of Passive Experiences with Plants on Human Well Being and Health." in Diane Relf (Ed.) The Role of Horticulture in Human Well-being and Social Development, Portland, OR: Timber Press.

Ulrich, Roger S. (1991). "Effects of Interior Design on Wellness: Theory and Recent Scientific Research." Journal of HealthCare and Interior Design, 3(1), pp. 97-109.
Synopsis: Daylighting and providing views benefits patients by reducing medical errors and improving their health outcomes.

Ulrich, Roger S. (1986). "Human Responses to Vegetation and Landscapes." Landscape and Urban Planning, Vol. 13, pp. 29-44.

Ulrich, Roger S. (1986). "Effects of Hospital Environments on Patient Well-Being." Research Report from Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Medicine, Vol. 9, No. 55. Trondheim, Norway: Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Medicine, University of Trondheim.

Ulrich, Roger S. (1984). "View Through a Window May Influence Recovery from Surgery." Science, Vol. 224, No. 4647, April 27, pp. 420-421.
This pivotal study is one of the most frequently-cited, by scholars and laypeople alike. Many people credit Ulrich's publishing of this study with the birth of the field of evidence-based design (EBD). Two groups of patients recovering from gall bladder surgery were compared. The group with a view of nature, rather than of a brick wall, logged fewer nurses complaints, needed less pain medication, and recovered more quickly.
To read a more detailed synopsis of this article, visit Meristem Library's Scientific Literature page.

Ulrich, Roger S. (1983). "Aesthetic and Affective Response to Natural Environment." In I. Altman and J. F. Wohlwill (Eds.) Behavior and the Environment, Vol. 6: Behavior and the Natural Environment, New York: Plenum, pp. 85-125.

Ulrich, Roger S. (1981). "Nature versus Urban Scenes: Some Psychophysiological Effects." Environment and Behavior, Vol. 13, pp. 523-556.

Ulrich, Roger S. (1979). "Visual Landscapes and Psychological Well-Being." Landscape Research, Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 17-23.

Ulrich, R. S., Craig Zimring, Xuemei Zhu, Jennifer DuBose, and Hyun-Bo Seo, Young-Seon Choi, Xiaobo Quan, and Anjali Joseph (2008). "A Review of the Research Literature on Evidence-Based Healthcare Design." Health Environments Research & Design Journal (HERD), Vol. 1, No. 3, pp. 61-125.
Synopsis: A close look at the research literature used to create articles about the design of health care institutions. Many citations regarding access to nature (through images, views, and direct experience with nature and plants).

Ulrich, R. S., C. Zimring, A. Joseph, X. Quan, and R. Choudhary (2004). "The Role of the Physical Environment in the Hospital of the 21st Century: A Once-in-a-Lifetime Opportunity." Concord, CA: The Center for Health Design.
Synopsis: The effect to which the physical environment of a hospital will affect its patients and staff.

Ulrich, Roger S., O. Lunden, and J. L. Eltinge (1993). "Effects of Exposure to Nature and Abstract Pictures on Patients Recovering from Heart Surgery." Paper presented at the Thirty-Third Meeting of the Society for Psychophysiological Research, Rottach-Egern, Germany. Abstract published in Psychophysiology, Vol. 30 (Supplement 1, 1993), p. 7.

Ulrich, Roger S. and R. Parsons (1992). "Influences of Passive Experiences with Plants on Individual Well-Being and Health." in Diane Relf (Ed.) The Role of Horticulture in Human Well-Being and Social Development, Portland, OR: Timber Press. pp. 93-105.

Ulrich, Roger S., U. Dimberg and B. L. Driver (1991). "Psychophysiological Indicators of Leisure Benefits." In B. L. Driver, P.J. Brown, and G. L. Peterson (Eds.) Benefits of Leisure, State College, PA: Venture Publishing. pp. 73-89.

Ulrich, Roger S., R. F. Simmons, B. D. Losito, E. Fiorito, M. A. Miles, and M. Zelson (1991). "Stress Recovery During Exposure to Natural and Urban Environments." Journal of Environmental Psychology, Vol. 11, pp. 201-230.
Synopsis: Stress recovery during exposure to natural environments was faster and more complete than during exposure to urban environments with little to no nature.

Ulrich, Roger S. and D. L. Addoms (1981). "Psychological and Recreational Benefits of a Residential Park." Journal of Leisure Research, Vol. 13, pp. 43-65.

USDA Forest Service (2009). Accessibility Guidebook on Outdoor Recreation and Trails, Forest Service Recreation Accessibility Guidelines. Retrieved January 23, 2010, from www.fs.fed.us/recreation/programs/accesssibility.

U.S. Department of Health & Human Services (2008). By 2020, One In Two Americans Over Age 50 Will Be At Risk For Fractures From Osteoporosis Or Low Bone Mass. Retrieved January 23, 2010, from www.hhs.gov/news/press/2004pres/20041014.html.

Vanderbilt, Tom (1999). "Shared Wisdom: Design for Child's Play." Landscape Architecture, Vol. 89, No. 3, March, pp. 134-135.

Vapaa, Annalisa Gartman (2002). "Healing Gardens: Creating Places for Restoration, Meditation, and Sanctuary. What are the defining characteristics that make a healing garden?" Master of Landscape Architecture Thesis for Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
Click HERE to link to a pdf of the thesis.
Click here or on the title above to link to a pdf of the thesis.. Abstract: The "healing garden" is an evolving concept that is gaining popularity today. What is a healing garden? Why is one garden called a healing garden and not another? How is a healing garden defined? In what way are gardens healing? This thesis describes the ways in which healing gardens are beneficial in healthcare and residential settings. A set of guidelines for the design of healing gardens is created as a result of research findings as well as three design projects that are illustrated in the document.

Verderber, S. (1986). "Dimensions of Person-Window Transactions in the Hospital Environment." Environment and Behavior, Vol. 18, pp. 450-466.

Vittori, Gail and Robin Guenther, FAIA (2007). Sustainable Healthcare Architecture. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Ware, Cheryl (1994). "Practical Guidelines for Designing Healing Gardens at Health Care Facilities." in Mark Francis, P. Lindsey, and J. Rice (Eds.) Healing Dimensions of People-Plant Relations, University of California, Davis: Center for Design Research.

Warner, Sam Bass (1994). "The Periodic Rediscoveries of Restorative Gardens: 1100 to the Present." in Mark Francis, P. Lindsey, and J. Rice (Eds.) Healing Dimensions of People-Plant Relations, University of California, Davis: Center for Design Research.

Wiesen, Anne and Lindsay Campbell (2009). Restorative Commons: Creating Health and Well-Being through Urban Landscapes. Newtown Square, Pennsylvania: USDA Forest Service.
Order or download a copy of the book from the USDA Forest Service website.
Visit the Restorative Commons website.
Read our review of the book on the TLN Blog.

West, Marcia J. (1986). "Landscape Views and Stress Response in the Prison Environment," Landscape Architecture, University of Washington, Seattle.

Westphal, Joanne M. (2000). "Hype, Hyperbole, and Health: Therapeutic Garden Design." In John F. Benson and Maggie H. Rowe (Eds.) Urban Lifestyle: Spaces, Places, People. Rotterdam: A. A. Balkema.

Westphal, Joanne M. (2001). "Medical Musing about Intergeneration Design Phenomena at the 4-H Children's Garden." Landscape Research, Vol. 26, No. 3, pp. 257-269.

Westphal, Joanne M. (2002). "The Role of the Landscape Architect in American Healthcare Delivery." Landscape Research, Fall.

Wilson, Edward O. (1975). Sociobiology: The New Synthesis. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Wilson, L.M. (1972). "Intensive Care Delirium: The Effect of Outside Deprivation in a Windowless Unit." Archives of Internal Medicine, 130(2), pp. 225-226.
Synopsis: Patients in windowless ICUs were twice as likely to experience delirium than in ICUs with windows.

Winburn, W. A. (1992). "The Development of Realities of Traditional Town Design." Urban Land, Vol. 51, No. 8, August, pp. 20-21 & 47.

Winterbottom, Daniel (2008). "Garbage to Garden: Developing a Safe, Nurturing, and Therapeutic Environment for the Children of the Garbage Pickers Utilizing an Academic Design/Build Service Learning Module." Children, Youth and Environments, 18(1), pp. 435-455. Click HERE to view or download the PDF.

Winterbottom, Daniel (2007). "Working in the Margins." Landscape Architecture Magazine, Vol. 97, No. 12, December, pp. 38-47. Article about a design/build project for mothers and children at the Bedford Hills Correctional Facility in Bedford Hills, NY.

Winterbottom, Daniel (2002). "Building as a Model for Learning." Landscape Journal, Vol. 21, No. 1, pp. 201-213. (Article about University of Washington Design/Build Class, including several healing gardens).

Woods, Pamela (2002). Gardens for the Soul. New York: Rizzoli International Publications, Inc.

Woy, Joann (1997). Accessible Gardening: Tips & Techniques for Seniors & the Disabled. Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books.

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Yeoman, Kathleen (1992). The Able Gardener. Pownal, VT: Garden Way.

Yuill, Nicola, Caroline Roake, Ruth Aspden, and Brenda Todd (2007). "Designing a Playground for Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders: Effects on Playful Peer Interactions.” Journal of Autism Development Disorders, Vol. 37, No. 6.
Click here to view or download the pdf.

Zeisel, John (2005). "Environment, Neuroscience, and Alzheimer's Disease," Alzheimer's Care Quarterly, Vol. 6, No. 4. Also summarized by Research Design Connections in Landscape Architecture Magazine, August 2006, Vol. 96, No. 8, pp. 72-73.

Zeisel, John (1981). Inquiry by Design: Tools for Environment-Behavior Research. Cambridge University Press.

Zeisel, John. "Treatment Effects of Healing Gardens for Alzheimer's: A Difficult Thing to Prove." Edinburgh Garden Paper. Click HERE for the pdf of this article.

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